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Network Vocabulary - Class Assignment

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Yodums

Senior Member
Joined
Oct 5, 2001
Location
Ottawa, Canada
For computer engineering we are starting on networking. We have been assigned a paper that has like a lot of terms on it and I was wondering if one person would be able to pitch it filling in a definition. It would be a waste of time to spend hours on this!

Here are the definitions:

TCP
IP
TCP/IP Stack
PPP
SMTP
Intranet
Packet
LAN
Ping
Trace route
Hub
URL
IP Address
Domain Name
Cookies
Ethernet
Gateway
Router
Switch
MAC Address
Winipcfg
Node
Cable modem
Fibre Optic Cable
Dial-Up
Modem
Firewall
Mapping
Ports
FTP
Hack
NIC Card
Server
Proxy Server
LAN
WAN
Bulletin Board
E-Mail
Bandwidth
ADSL
DSL
SLIP
HTML
XML
W3C
IRC
128-bit Encryption (SET)
Telnet
Spam
Winsock
UDP
CGI
PDF Files
SSL
POP3
Hops
Content Filtering
Hayes
Command set
ISP
Bluetooth Technologies
Anti-spam legislation
Peer to Peer Network
Bridge
Streaming Media
Compression
Smurf Attack
Virus
Handshake
Wireless Router
MS NetMeeting Whiteboard
Finger Program
Port probe
Network Address Translation 192.168 etc.

See how many definitions that is? Insane for me to look all that up. I also realise some are rather 'amateur' terms e.g. Cable modem, ISP etc. Oh well! :p

Pitch in and I'll update the list regularly marking what has been said! I just figured one person can pitch in 1-3 definitions it'd make a lot of difference.

Yodums
 

Chris

Member
Joined
Sep 30, 2001
Location
England, UK
I'll start with a few of the easy ones

Virus- A piece of code designed to cause damage or grief to the victim. They can be hidden into other files or sent to unknowledgeable people who are tricked with double extenstions i.e. .mp3.bat

I.P Address - This is a way of identifying a computer on a network or the internet, everybody must have a different I.P address so that they can be identified from the rest. The IP consists of 4 parts seperated by a decimal point each part can be three numbers long.

Bridge - Links two subnets (networks)that use the same media and protcol. May control data traffic and speed.
 

nightowl

Member
Joined
Jul 21, 2002
Location
N.E Scotland
I'll chip in a few aswell :D

Cookies : A collection of information, usually including a username and the current date and time, stored on the local computer of a person using the World Wide Web, used chiefly by websites to identify users who have previously registered or visited the site OR A small, usually flat and crisp cake made from sweetened dough.

Handshake : An exchange of signals between two devices when communications begin in order to ensure synchronization OR grasping and shaking a person's hand :rolleyes:

TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A protocol for communication between computers, used as a standard for transmitting data over networks and as the basis for standard Internet protocols.
 
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DarkArctic

Member
Joined
Jul 14, 2001
Location
Ontario, Canada
As usual, doing Yodums homework for him. :D

PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol, a connection protocol used in modems. PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) is closely related in that it's over ethernet cards instead of a modem.
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Packet: A piece of data sent across networks
Streaming Media: Video, audio or some other media that is downloaded and played at the same time. e.g. lots of Flash programs do this
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line, a network connection that uses the lower frequencies to transmit data at a high speed.
ADSL: Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line, Aynchronous DSL means that either the upload or the download bandwidth is greater. Synchronous DSL would both be the same speed.
SSL: Secure Socket Layer
W3C: World Wide Web Consortium, a group of people who decide on standards like HTML and XML.

I'd do more but I should get back to work. ;)

-DarkArctic

Edit: Just added and changed some stuff
 
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MajinSSJVegetto

Member
Joined
Jun 8, 2002
Location
Coppell, Texas
Ping: The time for a packet of information to sent through a LAN or internet connection to a client and back; normally listed as time in millaseconds(ms).

SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A protocal for users to send e-mail messages to others; used primarily by users of pop3 and imap e-mail servers.

Trace route: Form of tracing the network path from one ip-address to another. Often just gives pings and information about each server on the path, but often gives geographical path to the destination ip-address.

Winipcfg: Program built into Windows operating system that helps configure and view many aspects of the current internet and LAN connections.

Fibre Optic Cable: Cable designed to transmit digital light emisions at high speed with little absorbsion or distortion.

Dial-up: A connection to the internet obtained using a modem to create a analog link between to computers of a phone line, where the connection begins by dialing the remote servers phone number.

Modem: A ModulatorDemodulator used to change digital signals into a anolog signal (and back from anolog to digital) that can be sent through common phone lines to another Modem.

PDF Files: A file type used by Adobe Acrobat Reader to view well compressed files; is commonly used and supported by most operating systems.

POP3: One of many e-mail protocols; used for downloading of e-mail, not uploading. Normally apon viewing the email it is taken off the server and stored by the user.

ISP: A Internet Service Provider gives many users access to the internet through a variety of means, from dial-up connections to DSL.

Hope this helps.

edit: OH, and if ANYONE can explain to me what a "Smurf attack" is I would be VERY amused!
 

UnseenMenace

UnseenModerator
Joined
Apr 23, 2001
Re: Re: Network Vocabulary - Class Assignment

MajinSSJVegetto said:
edit: OH, and if ANYONE can explain to me what a "Smurf attack" is I would be VERY amused!

The "smurf" attack, named after its exploit program, is one of the most recent in the category of network-level attacks against hosts. A perpetrator sends a large amount of ICMP echo (ping) traffic at IP broadcast addresses, all of it having a spoofed source address of a victim. If the routing device delivering traffic to those broadcast addresses performs the IP broadcast to layer 2 broadcast function, most hosts on that IP network will take the ICMP echo request and reply to it with an echo reply each, multiplying the traffic by the number of hosts responding. On a multi-access broadcast network, there could potentially
be hundreds of machines to reply to each packet.

The "smurf" attack's cousin is called "fraggle", which uses UDP echo packets in the same fashion as the ICMP echo packets; it was a simple re-write of "smurf".

Currently, the providers/machines most commonly hit are IRC servers and their providers.

There are two parties who are hurt by this attack... the intermediary (broadcast) devices--let's call them "amplifiers", and the spoofed address target, or the "victim". The victim is the target of a large amount of traffic that the amplifiers generate.

Let's look at the scenario to paint a picture of the dangerous nature of this attack. Assume a co-location switched network with 100 hosts, and that the attacker has a T1. The attacker sends, say, a 768kb/s stream of ICMP echo (ping) packets, with a spoofed source address of the victim, to the broadcast address of the "bounce site". These ping packets hit the bounce site's broadcast network of 100 hosts; each of them takes the packet
and responds to it, creating 100 ping replies out-bound. If you multiply the bandwidth, you'll see that 76.8 Mbps is used outbound from the "bounce site" after the traffic is multiplied. This is then sent to the victim (the spoofed source of the originating packets).
 
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UnseenMenace

UnseenModerator
Joined
Apr 23, 2001
TCP =Transmittion Control Protocol

TCP ensures reliable communication and uses ports to deliver packets. It also fragments and reasembles messages, using a sequencing function to ensure that packets are assembled in the correct order.
------------------
IP = Internet Protocol

IP is a conectionless protocol responsible for providing addresses of each computer and performing routing. TCP/IP version 4 uses 32 bit addresses. The address scheme falls into five classes, only three of which are available for standard network addressing.
-------------------------------

Packet

A packet is a fixed piece of information sent across a network. Whenever you send information across a network you begin the packet creation process. A packet consists of three elements
1) A header ( OSI/RM layer information )
2) the actual data
3) A trailer ( often contains information ensuring that errors do not occur during trasmission )
-------------------------------------------------

LAN = Local Area Network

A Network that resides in the same building of premisis. Likewise a WAN is a wide area network and may be for example a network shared between two offices for the same company in different area's the internet is a WAN

----------------------------------


If you get stuck PM me... moderator type dutys call before homework :p
 
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UnseenMenace

UnseenModerator
Joined
Apr 23, 2001
Re: Re: Network Vocabulary - Class Assignment

MajinSSJVegetto said:
PDF Files: A file type used by Adobe Acrobat Reader to view well compressed files; is commonly used and supported by most operating systems.

PDF or Portable Document Format was never meant to read compressed files and can not read the majority of them. The PDF format was meant to create document files that anyone can open across a broad range of hardware and software with the document retaining the exact look and feel of the original documents with formatting, graphics, and fonts intact while preventing reviewers from making unauthorized changes to documents.
The early versions of some PDF software did not create compressed documents at all and this feature developed later.
 
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UnseenMenace

UnseenModerator
Joined
Apr 23, 2001
Ethernet is a LAN protocol which was developed I believe by Xerox and Intel. It is the most popular LAN technology at this time and resides at the datalink layer in the OSI/RM model
------------------------------
SMTP = simple mail transfer protocol which is a TCP/IP suite used to send e-mail messages from host to host
---------------------------------------------
Peer to Peer Network

A peer to peer network does not require dedicated resources such as fileservers, and any host can share its resources with other systems on the network.
typically peer to peer networks tend to be less expensive and easier to work on than client/server networks however they are less secure support fewer users (10 or fewer i believe) and experience more problems with files system management

--------------------------------
NIC Card = Network Interface Card (you dont use the word 'card' at the end)

A NIC resides in the mobo expansion slot and communicates with the computer though a device driver. networking cable connects the NIC to the network. NIC's vary for Ethernet and Token Ring networks. nicks operate at the data link level of the OSI/RM model

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Hub

A hub connects computers in a star configured network so they can exchange data. It has several ports, each connected by a single node. by interconnecting the nodes, a hub serves as the concentration point for a network. Most hubs are active hubs because they regenerate electronic signals same as that of a repeater. Hubs can also be linked or daisy chained to provide more ports for a larger network
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
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UnseenMenace

UnseenModerator
Joined
Apr 23, 2001
Kinerry said:
make sure you show who designed them, aka tcp/ip = department of defense

TCP/IP had nothing to do with the department of defence and was actually first mentioned in May 1974 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) who published a paper titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection." The paper's authors Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn described a protocol called "TCP" that incorporated both connection-oriented and datagram services.

It soon became apparent to the two men that this design should be subdivided into two separate protocols. Session management was not easy to do in an application-independent way. In practice, an application could sometimes run more efficiently or be implemented more easily when it managed network connections itself. "TCP" became Internet Protocol (IP) that supported datagrams and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) that added connection semantics as a layer on top of IP.
 

UnseenMenace

UnseenModerator
Joined
Apr 23, 2001
FTP = File Transfer protocol

FTP is a system used for transfering files between computers on a TCp/Ip based network. FTP offers a quick way to transfer files because it does not have the overhead of encoding and decoding data such as sending files as email attachments.
 

CharlesHF

Member
Joined
Jan 4, 2002
Location
Raleigh, NC--NCSU
Yodums, give me a minute and I'll open up my Cisco curriculum. :)

edit: Here we go, in order, copied directly from my CCNA curriculum. (when it says "not in curriculum" it's because I copied all these directly from the glossary and they weren't in there.

Hope this helps. :D (I hope it's formatted so it's readable, too, lol)

1. TCP: Transmission Control Protocol. Connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission. TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack.

2. IP: Internet Protocol. Network layer protocol in the TCP/IP stack offering a connectionless internetwork service. IP provides features for addressing, type-of-service specification, fragmentation and reassembly, and security.

3. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Common name for the suite of protocols developed by the U.S. DoD in the 1970s to support the construction of worldwide internetworks. TCP and IP are the two best-known protocols in the suite.

4. PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol. A successor to SLIP, PPP provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous and asynchronous circuits.

5. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Internet protocol providing electronic mail services.

6. Intranet: (not in curriculum)---a network confined to a small building (or in some cases, a company [large geographic area]), ie: building, campus, etc.

7. Packet: Logical grouping of information that includes a header containing control information and (usually) user data. Packets are most often used to refer to network layer units of data. The terms datagram, frame, message, and segment are also used to describe logical information groupings at various layers of the OSI reference model and in various technology circles.

8. LAN: Local-area network. High-speed, low-error data network covering a relatively small geographic area (up to a few thousand meters). LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices in a single building or other geographically limited area. LAN standards specify cabling and signaling at the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring are widely used LAN technologies.

9. Ping: Short for Packet Internet Groper or Packet Inter-network Groper, a utility to determine whether a specific IP address is accessible. It works by sending a packet to the specified address and waiting for a reply. PING is used primarily to troubleshoot Internet connections.

10. Trace route: (not in curriculum) I'm sure it has something to do with tracing the route of packets, as they are routed to you. I think it's a command in a router.

11. Hub: 1. Generally, a term used to describe a device that serves as the center of a star-topology network.
2. Hardware or software device that contains multiple independent but connected modules of network and internetwork equipment. Hubs can be active (where they repeat signals sent through them) or passive (where they do not repeat, but merely split, signals sent through them).
3. In Ethernet and IEEE 802.3, an Ethernet multiport repeater, sometimes referred to as a concentrator.

12. URL: Universal Resource Locator. Standardized addressing scheme for accessing hypertext documents and other services using a WWW browser.

13. IP Address: 1.) 32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/IP. An IP address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is written as 4 octets separated with periods (dotted decimal format). Each address consists of a network number, an optional subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together are used for routing, while the host number is used to address an individual host within the network or subnetwork. A subnet mask is used to extract network and subnetwork information from the IP address. Also called an Internet address. 2.) Command used to establish the logical network address of this interface.

14. Domain name: (not in curriculum)---the actual name of a website. (www.yahoo.com) This is converted into an IP address by a DNS server.

15. Cookies: (not in cirrculum)--small file transplanted onto your computer that tells the remote computer when you came, what sites you've been to, etc. Usually used for advertising. On some sites, it's used to log people back in.

16. Ethernet: Baseband LAN specification invented by Xerox Corporation and developed jointly by Xerox, Intel, and Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD and run over a variety of cable types at 10 Mbps. Ethernet is similar to the IEEE 802.3 series of standards.

17. Gateway: In the IP community, an older term referring to a routing device. Today, the term router is used to describe nodes that perform this function, and gateway refers to a special-purpose device that performs an application layer conversion of information from one protocol stack to another.

18. Router: Network layer device that uses one or more metrics to determine the optimal path along which network traffic should be forwarded. Routers forward packets from one network to another based on network layer information. Occasionally called a gateway (although this definition of gateway is becoming increasingly outdated).

19. Switch: 1.) Network device that filters, forwards, and floods frames based on the destination address of each frame. The switch operates at the data link layer of the OSI model.
2.) General term applied to an electronic or mechanical device that allows a connection to be established as necessary and terminated when there is no longer a session to support.

20. MAC Address: Standardized data link layer address that is required for every port or device that connects to a LAN. Other devices in the network use these addresses to locate specific ports in the network and to create and update routing tables and data structures. MAC addresses are 6 bytes long and are controlled by the IEEE. Also known as a hardware address, a MAC-layer address, or a physical address.

21. Winipcfg: (not in curriculum) ??

22. Node: 1. Endpoint of a network connection or a junction common to two or more lines in a network. Nodes can be processors, controllers, or workstations. Nodes, which vary in routing and other functional capabilities, can be interconnected by links, and serve as control points in the network. Node is sometimes used generically to refer to any entity that can access a network, and is frequently used interchangeably with device.
2. In SNA, the basic component of a network, and the point at which one or more functional units connect channels or data circuits.

23. Cable modem: (not in curriculum) modem that works over coaxial cable from a cable ISP. Maximum bandwidth=10mbps, but that decreases with number of users in your area.

24. Fiber-optic cable: Physical medium capable of conducting modulated light transmission. Compared with other transmission media, fiber-optic cable is more expensive, but is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference, and is capable of higher data rates. Sometimes called optical fiber.

25. Dial-up: (not in curriculum) method of connecting to the internet through a telephone cable, used to "dial in" to the ISP.

26. Modem: Modulator-demodulator. Device that converts digital and analog signals. At the source, a modem converts digital signals to a form suitable for transmission over analog communication facilities. At the destination, the analog signals are returned to their digital form. Modems allow data to be transmitted over voice-grade telephone lines.

27. FirewallRouter or access server, or several routers or access servers, designated as a buffer between any connected public networks and a private network. A firewall router uses access lists and other methods to ensure the security of the private network.

28. Mapping: (not in curriculum) ??

29. Ports: 1.) Interface on an internetworking device (such as a router).
2.) In IP terminology, an upper-layer process that is receiving information from lower layers.
3.) To rewrite software or microcode so that it will run on a different hardware platform or in a different software environment than that for which it was originally designed. 4. A female plug on a patch panel which accepts the same size plug as an RJ-45 jack. Patch cords are used in these ports to cross connect computers wired to the patch panel. It is this cross connection which allows the LAN to function.
4.) A female plug on a patch panel which accepts the same size plug as an RJ-45 jack. Patch cords are used in these ports to cross connect computers wired to the patch panel. It is this cross connection which allows the LAN to function.

30. FTP: File Transfer Protocol. Application protocol, part of the TCP/IP protocol stack, used for transferring files between network nodes. FTP is defined in RFC 959.

31. Hack: (not in curriculum) ??

32. NIC: 1.) Network interface card. Board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a computer system. Also called an adapter. Operates at layers 1 and 2 of the OSI model.

33. Server: Node or software program that provides services to clients.

34. Proxy Server: (not in curriculum) If I remember correctly, it's a server that many people access the internet through, but I'm not sure. :confused:

35. LAN: Already done above (see number 8) ;)

36. WAN: Wide-area network. Data communications network that serves users across a broad geographic area and often uses transmission devices provided by common carriers. Frame Relay, SMDS, and X.25 are examples of WANs.

37. Bulletin Board: (not in curriculum) ?? (I have a general idea, but I want to make sure that all these are right)

38. E-mail: Widely used network application in which mail messages are transmitted electronically between end users over various types of networks using various network protocols.

39. Bandwidth: The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies available for network signals. The term is also used to describe the rated throughput capacity of a given network medium or protocol.

40. ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

41. DSL: new and developing WAN technology intended for home use; has a bandwidth which decreases with increasing distance from the phone companies equipment; top speeds of 51.84 Mbps are possible near a phone company office, more common are much lower bandwidths (from 100s of kbps to several Mbps); usage is small but increasing rapidly; cost is moderate and decreasing; x indicates the entire family of DSL technologies, including:
HDSL -- high-bit-rate DSL
SDSL -- single-line DSL
ADSL -- asymmetric DSL
VDSL -- very-high-bit-rate DSL
RADSL -- rate adaptive DSL

42. SLIP: Serial Line Internet Protocol. Standard protocol for point-to-point serial connections using a variation of TCP/IP. Predecessor of PPP.

43. HTML: Hypertext markup language. Simple hypertext document formatting language that uses tags to indicate how a given part of a document should be interpreted by a viewing application, such as a WWW browser.

44. XML: (not in curriculum) ??

45. W3C: (not in curriculum) ??

46. IRC: (not in curriculum) Internet Relay Chat. If I can remember, it's the first major chat program on the net.

47. 128-bit Encryption: (not incurriculum) ??

48. Telnet: Command used to verify the application layer software between source and destination stations. This is the most complete test mechanism available.

49. Spam: (not in curriculum) junk e-mails that I didn't ask for and don't want, yet continue to receive. :mad:

50. Winsock: (not in curriculum) ??

51. UDP: User Datagram Protocol. Connectionless transport layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams without acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery, requiring that error processing and retransmission be handled by other protocols. UDP is defined in RFC 768

52. CGI: (not in curriculum) ??

53. PDF Files: file type developed by Adobe that allows cross platform communication of "paper-lookalike" files.

54. SSL: (not in curriculum) ??

55. POP3: (not in curriculum) An e-mail protocol.

56. Hops: Term describing the passage of a data packet between two network nodes (for example, between two routers)

57. Content filtering: (not in curriculum) ??

58. Hayes: (not in curriculum) First modem manufacturer, if I remember correctly.

59. Command set: (not in curriculum) ??

60. ISP: Internet Service Provider.

61. Bluetooth Technologies: (not in curriculum) ??

62. Anti-Spam Lesiglation: (not in curriculum) Legislation to reduce the amount of spam on the internet.

63. Peer-to-Peer Network: Peer-to-peer computing calls for each network device to run both client and server portions of an application. Also describes communication between implementations of the same OSI reference model layer in two different network devices.

64. Bridge: Device that connects and passes packets between two network segments that use the same communications protocol. Bridges operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI reference model. In general, a bridge will filter, forward, or flood an incoming frame based on the MAC address of that frame.

65. Streaming media: media that is being played at the same time it's downloaded.

66. Compression: The running of a data set through an algorithm that reduces the space required to store or the bandwidth required to transmit the data set.

67. Smurf attack: (not in curriculum) ??

68. Virus: (not in curriculum) Malicious code

69. Handshake: Sequence of messages exchanged between two or more network devices to ensure transmission synchronization.

70. Wireless router: (not in curriculum) A router that uses the electromagnetic spectrum to receive/transmit information, instead of wires.

71. MS Netmeeting Whiteboard: (not in curriculum) ??

72. Finger Program: (not in curriculum) ??

73. Port probe: (not in curriculum) ??

74. Network Address Translation: (NAT) [not in curriculum]A series of non-routable IP addresses used for private networks; these are "translated" into a routable IP for use on the internet.
Class A: 10.x.x.x
Class B: 172.16.x.x
Class C: 192.168.x.x


Yodums, you told me on mIRC that you were also doing the OSI Model. Here's a brief overview of each layer.


"Layer 7: The Application Layer
The application layer is the OSI layer that is closest to the user; it provides network services to the user’s applications. It differs from the other layers in that it does not provide services to any other OSI layer, but rather, only to applications outside the OSI model. Examples of such applications are spreadsheet programs, word processing programs, and bank terminal programs. The application layer establishes the availability of intended communication partners, synchronizes and establishes agreement on procedures for error recovery and control of data integrity. If you want to remember Layer 7 in as few words as possible, think of browsers.

Layer 6: The Presentation Layer
The presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system. If necessary, the presentation layer translates between multiple data formats by using a common format. If you want to think of Layer 6 in as few words as possible, think of a common data format.

Layer 5: The Session Layer
As its name implies, the session layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts. The session layer provides its services to the presentation layer. It also synchronizes dialogue between the two hosts' presentation layers and manages their data exchange. In addition to session regulation, the session layer offers provisions for efficient data transfer, class of service, and exception reporting of session layer, presentation layer, and application layer problems. If you want to remember Layer 5 in as few words as possible, think of dialogues and conversations.

Layer 4: The Transport Layer
The transport layer segments data from the sending host's system and reassembles the data into a data stream on the receiving host's system. The boundary between the transport layer and the session layer can be thought of as the boundary between application protocols and data-flow protocols. Whereas the application, presentation, and session layers are concerned with application issues, the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues.

The transport layer attempts to provide a data transport service that shields the upper layers from transport implementation details. Specifically, issues such as how reliable transport between two hosts is accomplished is the concern of the transport layer. In providing communication service, the transport layer establishes, maintains, and properly terminates virtual circuits. In providing reliable service, transport error detection-and-recovery and information flow control are used. If you want to remember Layer 4 in as few words as possible, think of quality of service, and reliability.

Layer 3: The Network Layer
The network layer is a complex layer that provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may be located on geographically separated networks. If you want to remember Layer 3 in as few words as possible, think of path selection, routing, and addressing.

Layer 2: The Data Link Layer
The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. In so doing, the data link layer is concerned with physical (as opposed to logical) addressing, network topology, network access, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow control. If you want to remember Layer 2 in as few words as possible, think of frames and media access control.

Layer 1: The Physical Layer
The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems. Such characteristics as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum transmission distances, physical connectors, and other, similar, attributes are defined by physical layer specifications. If you want to remember Layer 1 in as few words as possible, think of signals and media."

Hope this helps. :)
(Thanks to the Cisco CCNA Curriculum for making this possible)
 
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rogerdugans

Linux challenged Senior, not that it stops me...
Joined
Dec 28, 2001
Location
Corner of No and Where
A couple more for ya:

TCP/IP Stack: actually a suite of programs and protocols that are packaged together and take care of the different basic functions of networking. Pretty much each piece of the stack just does 1 thing, but does it fast and well.

Intranet: a network that publishes information to its users using standard Internet methods, but is NOT publicly accessible- many companies have Intranets that make dissemination of information internally much easier.

Hayes- most likely referring to one of the old modem standards: if a modem was Hayes compatible you could pretty much count on it working.

Get some extra credit too: mention that IIS (Internet Information Services) is a popular Web Server with many, and that Apache is another one of the biggest Web Servers:D